Mature Girdle Tube
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Mature Girdle Tube
Girdling had no obvious effect on the root N content before and after spring shoot emergence (Figure 2a); however, the root N content was 16.44% after fruit expansion and 15.07% lower after fruit ripening compared with the CK. Therefore, girdling promoted N accumulation in the root system during fruit expansion but decreased N accumulation at fruit maturity. Application of foliar fertilizer after girdling reduced the root N content in each period, indicating that foliar fertilizer supplementation was not conducive to accumulation of N in the roots of girdled C. oleifera plants.
The P distribution patterns in C. oleifera organs in different treatments at different stages were shown in Figure 5. At the spring shoot emergence stage, girdling decreased the content of P in leaves and increased P accumulation in the root system. The distribution of P in roots and leaves in the girdling + foliar fertilizer treatment was similar to that in CK. During the period after spring shoot emergence, the relative root P content was the highest in the girdling treatment, indicating that girdling was conducive to the accumulation of P in the root system. However, foliar fertilizer spray on girdled plants slightly decreased the relative root P content. After fruit expansion, the relative P content of fruits was the lowest, while that of leaves was the highest in the girdling treatment; however, the relative P content of roots showed no significant difference among the three treatments. At the fruit maturity stage, the relative P content of leaves was still the highest in the girdling treatment, and the P content in flower buds was relatively less, indicating that the girdling induced the transport of P from roots mainly to leaves. No significant difference was detected in P nutrient allocation between the girdling + foliar fertilizer and CK treatments. In general, the root system of C. oleifera accumulated more P in the first half of the year, and more P was transferred to the leaves in the second half of the year when fruits had expanded and ripened. This effect was alleviated by spraying foliar fertilizer after girdling.
The leaf N:P ratio in the girdling + foliar fertilizer was significantly lower than that in the girdling treatment but significantly higher than that in CK. During other periods, the effect of girdling + foliar fertilizer on the leaf N:P ratio was not obvious. In addition, during the leaf growth period, the N:P ratio in CK gradually increased, reaching a peak at the fruit maturity stage; however, in the other two treatments, the leaf N:P ratio first decreased and then increased at the fruit maturity stage. The root N:P ratio differed among the three treatments only in the first half of the year; after fruit expansion in the second half of the year, girdling had little effect on the root N:P ratio, regardless of the application of foliar fertilizer. The root N:P ratio decreased after girdling; however, after foliar fertilizer spray, the root N:P ratio decreased further, reaching levels significantly lower than those observed in CK, both before and after spring shoot emergence. The effect of girdling on the N:P ratio was not obvious at the fruit expansion stage, but was significant in mature fruits and flowers. Thus, in the CK treatment, the N:P ratio was significantly higher in fruits and significantly lower in flower buds. Application of foliar fertilizer after girdling increased the N:P ratio in mature fruits to different degrees, bringing the N:P ratio in fruits in the girdling + foliar fertilizer treatment closer to that in the CK treatment, although the N:P ratio in flower buds was higher in the girdling + foliar fertilizer treatment than in CK.
We describe one new enchytraeid species, Fridericia liangi sp. nov., from Mt. Changbaishan, Jilin Province, northeastern China. It was collected from soils at the foot of Changbaishan Mountain and is distinguished from all known congeners by the following combination of characters: 1) no lateral chaetae, only ventral chaetae throughout, 2) a maximum of four chaetae in ventral preclitellar bundles, 3) one chaeta in ventral postclitellar bundles, 4) dorsal pores from VII on, 5) esophageal appendages unbranched, 6) coelomocytes without refractile vesicles, 7) clitellum girdle shaped, well developed, 8) no subneural glands, and 9) spermathecae simple. 59ce067264